On that map, you will see 3 main pathways with excess stuff in between the middle and top, and middle and bottom lane.
Top lane, is on the top, middle lane is in the center along with the bot lane being on the bottom. The two larger areas in the center of map are known as the jungle.
Your Top Laner goes on the top, mid laner goes in the middle, jungler goes in the jungle, with the ADC (Attack Damage Carry) and Support goes on the bottom.
I do believe a staff member should make a more in depth guide about the game for people who end up here that have not played other mobas. I already answered something like this for people asking questions on the champion statistics ;P
The guide should explain everything under strategy (players role and significance), the map and champion statistics -at least-.